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Municipalities

Barlig
is a fifth class municipality in the province of Mountain Province, Philippines. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 5,838 people. Barlig is bounded in the east by Natonin in the west by Bontoc and Sadanga. In the north, it is bounded by Tinglayan and in the south by the town of Mayoyao. The town is separated into three settlements or cluster of villages such as Barlig town proper, Lias and Kadaclan. Barlig is politically subdivided into 11 barangays namely CHUPAC, FIANGTIN, KALEO, LATANG, LIAS KANLURAN, LIAS SILANGAN, LINGOY, LUNAS, MACALANA, OGOOG, and GAWANA (Poblacion).
The people of Barlig are dominantly of Igorot descent. Locals call themselves Ifiallig which is a reference to someone born or have roots from villages. In the cluster of villages in Lias, people call themselves I-lias while those from Kadaclan villages call themselves Ekachakran. Despite living in a single town, the people speak different languages and probably traditions. Barlig town boasts of its own rice terraces, the Barlig Rice Terraces near the center of the town and Lias Rice Terraces in Lias, which is a cluster of villages. In Kadaclan, which is another cluster of villages, the annual "Menaliyam" festival is held.

Bauko
is a fourth class municipality in the province of Mountain Province, Philippines. It is the province's most populous town. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 30,172 people. Bauko is politically subdivided into 22 barangays, divided into the upper and lower areas. ABATAN, BAGNEN ORIENTE, BAGNEN PROPER, BALINTAUGAN, BANAO, BILA, GUINZADAN CENTRAL, GUINZADAN NORTE, GUINZADAN SUR, LAGAWA, LESEB, MABAAY, MAYAG, MONAMON NORTE, MONAMON SUR, MOUNT DATA, OTUCAN NORTE, OTUCAN SUR, POBLACION (BAUKO), SADSADAN, SINTO, TAPAPAN.

Besao
is a fifth class municipality in the province of Mountain Province, Philippines. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 7,818 people. The municipality of Besao is believed to have derived its name from the Ilocano word "Buso", meaning headhunter. The people then of the neighboring towns specifically those from the Ilocos Region believed that the early "Besaos" were headhunters. The word later on evolved as it is now called - Besao. It was also said that Besao is the hometown of the great worlocks of mountain province and it was once said that the people of the said place are intensely feared by fierce tribes due to their lineage of being elite headhunters and worlocks. Besao is politically subdivided into 14 barangays: AGAWA, AMBAGIW, BANGUITAN, BESAO EAST, BESAO WEST, CATENGAN, GUEDAY, LACMAAN, LAYLAYA, PADANGAAN, PAYEO, SUQUIB, TAMBOAN, KIN-IWAY (Poblacion).

Bontoc
is a second class municipality and the capital of Mountain Province, Philippines. Bontoc is the historical capital of the entire Cordillera region since the inception of governance in the Cordillera. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 23,980 people. The municipality celebrates annual Lang-ay Festival.
Bontoc is home to the Bontoc Tribe, a feared war-like group of indigenous people who actively indulged in tribal wars with its neighbours until the 1930s. Every Bontoc male had to undergo a rites of passage into manhood, which may include head hunting, where the male has to journey (Sometimes with companions) and hunt for a human head. The Bontocs also used the jaw of the hunted head as a handle for its gongs, and as late as the early 1990s, evidence of this practice can be seen from one of the gongs in Pukisan, Bontoc.
This is the home of the Ifuntok Language, which has variable dialects under it. However, the Original Ifuntok Language is fast dying out, as more of the younger generations speak a mixture of Ilocano, Tagalog, and Kankanaey Dialects. This is partly due to the frequent contact of the younger generations with other regions of the Philippine nation. Some words are not in use anymore. Within the Bontoc proper, only 40% of the local population can communicate using this language without diluting their daily language with other languages/dialects.
Samuel E. Kane, American Supervisor and then Governor, established the capital here after the Philippine Commission passed the Mountain Province Act, building a provincial building, hospital, doctor's office, nurse's home, a school, and provincial prison. He also built the Tagudin-Bontoc trail, which by 1926, could accommodate a small car. Bontoc is politically subdivided into 16 barangays which are ALAB PROPER, ALAB ORIENTE, BALILI, BAY-YO, BONTOC ILI, CAN-EO, DALICAN, GONOGON, GUINAANG, MAINIT, MALIGCONG, SAMOKI, TALUBIN, TOCUCAN, POBLACION (Bontoc), and CALUTTIT.

The local economy depends largely on small trades and agriculture. This capital town's biggest economic potential is tourism with its smaller rice terraces in Barangay Bay-yo, Maligcong and other areas.
Mountain Province State Polytechnic College is the first tertiary institution in the municipality that offers various undergraduate & graduate courses. XiJen College of Mountain Province is the only private tertiary institution that also offers technical-vocational courses.

Natonin
Natonin is a fourth class municipality in the province of Mountain Province, Philippines. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 10,048 people. The municipality is very mountainous, with very little level ground lending itself to agriculture. The barangays are geographically isolated by high (700m) mountains covered in jungle. Natonin is politically subdivided into 11 barangays: ALUNOGAN, BALANGAO, BANAO, BANAWEL, BUTAC, MADUCAYAN, POBLACION, SALIOK, SANTA ISABEL, TONGLAYAN, PUDO.
The town is composed from people of two ethnic groups, the Balangaos and the Majukayongs. Most of the population refer to themselves as Igorots. The traditions and dialect of the Majukayongs are more closely related to Kalingan. It could be argued that the Majukayong are the southernmost Kalingan tribe. Headhunting was practiced in Maducayan as late as the mid-1930s, and was set aside in favor of Christianity and education after World War II.
The primary crop is rice, although a lack of arable land, lack of mechanization and no access to fertilizers limits the harvest to a subsistence level only. Families rely on small livestock populations to supplement the diet. Fruits and wild coffee are harvested from the forest. Poblacion boasts of numerous family ponds which raise tilapia for consumption. Due to the terrain, rice is planted on terraced fields. Locals consider the rice terraces of Natonin to be equal or surpassing those of Banaue to the south.

Paracelis
is a second class municipality in the province of Mountain Province, Philippines. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 26,476 people. Paracelis' population distribution is 37 percent urban and 63 percent rural. Urban settlement is on the west side of the town, a basin of low-level hilly-to-flat lands surrounded by mountains. Due to hilly terrain, Paracelis has numerous zigzag roads in most parts, including access roads that connect the municipality to other border towns. On both sides of its zigzag roads, travelers can view the vast cornfield plantations alongside.
Paracelis is a border town of Mountain Province where it shares borders with Kalinga, Isabela and Ifugao provinces. In the north, its borders with the city of Tabuk and the town of Tanudan. In the south, it is bordered by Alfonso Lista. In the north-east, it shares a border with Quezon, in the east with Mallig and Roxas in Isabela. In the west, it borders with Natonin. Paracelis is subdivided into 9 barangays: ANONAT, BACARRI, BANANAO, BANTAY, BUTIGUE, BUNOT, BURINGAL, PALITOD, POBLACION. Paracelis was first settled by the Ga'dang (Gaddang) ethnic group, who were migrants from Cagayan Valley mountain range. They are the ascendants of the present Baliwon tribe living in the periphery of the mountains of Paracelis. Through the years, Paracelis has become the main entry point to the rest of Mountain Province.
The name Paracelis came into existence as early as the 1900s as part of the territorial barangays of Natonin within the District of Kalao. Paracelis used to be part of Natonin and it became a regular town named Paracales with the enactment of Republic Act 3488 on June 16, 1962. The town was renamed Paracelis on June 18, 1966 under Republic Act 4738. The first appointed mayor was Benito Rafael. The first official site of the civil government was at Nattalongan, now currently within Barangay Bantay. The pre-World War II government was short-lived and administration lasted under three local managements from 1917-1921. There is a historical gap from this decade up to post-World War II. In 1962, the government center at Nattalongan was transferred to Anangka within the Rafael compound. The site was again transferred to a lot in Marat donated by the Gawan family. In 1991, the official of the municipal government transferred the government center to its present site in Poblacion. The government used to occupy a 1-hectare lot that housed all the units.

Sabangan
is a fifth class municipality in the province of Mountain Province, Philippines. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 8,741 people. Sabangan is politically subdivided into 15 barangays: BAO-ANGAN, BUN-AYAN, BUSA, CAMATAGAN, CAPINITAN, DATA, GAYANG, LAGAN, LOSAD, NAMATEC, NAPUA, PINGAD, POBLACION, PINGAD, TAMBINGAN.

Sadanga
is a fifth class municipality in the province of Mountain Province, Philippines. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 9,181 people. Sadanga is politically subdivided into 8 barangays: ANABEL, BELWANG, BETWAGAN, BEKIGAN, POBLACION, SACASACAN, SACLIT DEMANG.

Sagada
is a fifth class municipality in the province of Mountain Province, Philippines. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 11,244 people. It is adjacent to Bontoc, the provincial capital. Sagada is famous for its hanging coffins. This is a traditional way of burying people that is still utilized. Not everyone is qualified to be buried this way; among other things, one had to have been married and had grandchildren. Popular activities include trekking, exploring both caves and waterfalls, spelunking, bonfires, picnics, rappelling, visiting historical sites, nature hikes, and participating in tribal celebrations. Guides can be found upon registration at the tourist-office in Sagada Proper (the main town) for a small fee. Most of the guides are natives, also known as Igorots.
Sagada is nestled in a valley at the upper end of the Malitep tributary of the Chico River some one and a half kilometers above sea level in the Central Cordillera Mountains, enveloped between the main Cordillera Ranges and the Ilocos Range. Mount Data in the south and Mount Kalawitan in the southeast pierce the horizon. Mount Polis, Bessang and Mount Tirad in the east, and Mount Sisipitan in the north mark the Mountain Province-Abra boundary.
Sagada is politically subdivided into 19 barangays: AGUID, AMBASING, ANGKILENG, ANTADAO, BALUGAN, BANGAAN, DAGDAG (Poblacion), DEMANG (Poblacion), FIDELISAN, KILONG, MADONGO, PATAY (Poblacion), PIDE, NACAGANG, SUYO, TACCONG, TANULONG, TETEP-AN NORTE, TETEP-AN SUR.
According to legend, Sagada was founded as an ili or village by Biag, a man from Bika in eastern Abra. The people from Bika were forced out of their ili by raiding headhunters. Biag's family resettled in Candon but when baptism or the giving of names was enforced, Biag's family chose to move back toward the mountains in search for a settlement. Along the way, he and his siblings decided to part ways. A brother, Balay, chose to return to Candon, a sister to Abra. Another brother settled along the upper Abra River. Biag pushed further to the east until he came to what is now Sagada. Perhaps for lack of transportation and willing guides, few conquistadors set foot in Sagada during the Spanish Era, and a Spanish Mission was not founded until 1882. As a result, it is one of a few places that has preserved its indigenous culture with little Spanish influence.

Tadian
is a fourth class municipality in the province of Mountain Province, Philippines. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 20,689 people. Tadian was formerly known as Kayan. In 1957, the seat of government was transferred to the barrio of Tadian. Two years later the town was renamed to Tadian.
Tadian is politically subdivided into 19 barangays: BALAOA, BANAAO, BANTEY, BATAYAN, BUNGA, CADAD-ANAN, CAGUBATAN, DUAGAN, DACUDAC, KAYAN EAST, KAYAN WEST, LENGA, LUBON (LUB-ONG), MABALITE, MASLA, PANDAYAN, POBLACION, SUMADEL, TUE.